Category: Ophtalmology


Routine funduscopic examination of a 52-year-old man reveals small, discrete red dots located in largest numbers in the paracentral region. Such retinal microaneurysms most often occur with which of the following?

  1.  Sarcoidosis
  2.  Chronic hypertension
  3.  Diabetes mellitus
  4.  Anterior communicating aneurysms
  5.  Chorioretinitis

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A 64-year-old man who has had hypertension for more than 30 years is being examined. The most obvious changes seen during retinal exam would include which of the following?

  1.  Retinal tears
  2.  Optic atrophy
  3. Segmental narrowing of arterioles
  4. Drusen
  5. Telangiectasias

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Injuries to the macula or fovea centralis typically affect vision by producing which of the following?

  1. Bitemporal hemianopsia
  2.  Nyctalopia (night blindness)
  3. Scintillating scotomas
  4. Mild loss of visual acuity
  5. Severe loss of visual acuity

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A 25-year-old male is being evaluated. Rhythmic jerk nystagmus is elicited by having the patient look at a rotating drum with stripes on it. This finding suggests which of the following?

a. Drug toxicity

b. Brainstem ischemia

c. Parinaud syndrome

d. Unilateral parietal lobe damage

e. No pathologic lesion in the brain

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A 5-year-old girl sustains a cut on her face from broken glass. Initially, the injury appears superficial except for a small area of deeper penetration just above the right eyebrow. Within 4 days, the child develops periorbital pain and double vision. The tissues about the eye are erythematous, and the eye appears to bulge slightly. The optic disc is sharp, and no afferent pupillary defect is apparent. Visual acuity in the affected eye is preserved. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

a. Orbital cellulitis

b. Cavernous sinus thrombosis

c. Transverse sinus thrombosis

d. Optic neuritis

e. Diphtheritic polyneuropathy

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A 32-year-old man from a rural area of southern Africa was recently brought to the United States by some of his family members who had emigrated previously. His family says that he was diagnosed with syphilis at age 16 and has taken penicillin off and on over the years, but never completed the prescribed course. Assuming that he has neurosyphilis, which of the following is true with regard to the classic pupillary defect most likely to be observed?

a. Completely normal (no defect)

b. Reacts poorly to light but accommodates well

c. Accommodates poorly but reacts well to light

d. Is pinpoint and regular in shape

e. Is fixed and dilated

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A 19-year-old woman with headaches and visual blurring has prominent bulging of both optic nerve heads with obscuration of all margins of both optic discs. Her physician is reluctant to pursue neurologic studies because the patient is 8 months pregnant and had similar symptoms during the last month of another pregnancy. Her physical and neurologic examinations are otherwise unrevealing. If neuroimaging studies were to be performed on this woman, they probably would reveal which of the following?

a. A subfrontal meningioma

b. Intraventricular blood

c. Slitlike ventricles

d. Transtentorial herniation

e. Metastatic breast carcinoma

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A 58-year-old man with type 2 diabetes presents with the acute onset of double vision. Examination reveals a deficit of the third cranial nerve. A third-nerve palsy associated with diabetes mellitus is usually characterized by which of the following?

a. Poor pupillodilation

b. Poor pupilloconstriction

c. Sparing of pupillary function

d. Inversion of the affected eye

e. Upward deviation of the affected eye

the answer is below…

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A 36-year-old man abruptly loses vision in one eye. His retina appears cloudy and grayish yellow with narrowed arterioles. The fovea appears cherry red, and the vessels that are obvious appear to have segmented columns of blood. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

a. Chorioretinitis

b. Occlusion of the central retinal vein

c. Occlusion of the central retinal artery

d. Optic neuritis

e. Tay-Sachs disease

the answer is below…

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