A 19-year-old woman with headaches and visual blurring has prominent bulging of both optic nerve heads with obscuration of all margins of both optic discs. Her physician is reluctant to pursue neurologic studies because the patient is 8 months pregnant and had similar symptoms during the last month of another pregnancy. Her physical and neurologic examinations are otherwise unrevealing. If neuroimaging studies were to be performed on this woman, they probably would reveal which of the following?
a. A subfrontal meningioma
b. Intraventricular blood
c. Slitlike ventricles
d. Transtentorial herniation
e. Metastatic breast carcinoma
the answer is below…
The United States Medical Licensing Examination, or USMLE for short, is a three-part licensing examination that is required in order to receive a license to practice medicine within the United States.
The USMLE assesses a physician’s ability to apply knowledge, concepts, and principles, and to determine fundamental patient-centered skills that are important in health and disease and that constitute the basis of safe and effective patient care.Examination committees composed of medical educators and clinicians from across the United States and its territories prepare the examination materials each year.
This exam is designed by the Federation of State Medical Boards and the National Board of Medical Examiners to determine whether or not an individual understands and can apply the knowledge necessary to practice medicine safely and intelligently.
The USMLE is actually comprised of three different exams that are referred to as steps, which examine the individual’s knowledge of specific topics related to the field of medicine such as basic science, medical knowledge, medical skills, clinical science, and the application of all of these skills and areas of knowledge in the medical field.
All three steps of the USMLE include a series of computerized multiple-choice questions, but the format of the exam and the information covered in each multiple-choice section is different for each step of the USMLE. The USMLE Step II also has a clinical skills portion that examines an individual’s ability to work with real patients and the USMLE Step III has a computerized patient simulation portion in addition to the multiple-choice section of the exam. In order for an individual to receive a license to practice medicine, the individual must pass all three steps of the USMLE.
The correct answer is c; Slitlike ventricles.
Although papilledema must be considered evidence of a potentially life-threatening intracranial process, optic nerve bulging in this young woman is most likely from pseudotumor cerebri. This is a relatively benign condition that occasionally develops in obese or pregnant women. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure is markedly elevated in these patients, but they are not at risk of herniation. The condition is presumed to arise from hormonal problems. Without treatment, the increased intracranial pressure will produce optic nerve damage with loss of visual acuity.